ZUO Zongtang (左宗棠, 1812-1885)

Zuo Zongtang

Zuo Zongtang (左宗棠) (November 10, 1812 – September 5, 1885) was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing Dynasty.

@ We shall first confront them [the Russians] with arguments...and then settle it on the battlefields. [John King Fairbank, Kwang-ching Liu, Denis Crispin Twitchett (1980). Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911. Cambridge University Press. p. 93. ISBN 0521220297. Retrieved on 2010-6-28.]


Zhu Bajie (豬八戒)

Zhu Bajie(豬八戒)

Alternative Names (異名):
豬八戒, 猪八戒, Zhū Bājiè (pinyin), Zhu Bajie

Zhu Bajie (traditional Chinese: 豬八戒; simplified Chinese: 猪八戒; pinyin: Zhū Bājiè; Wade-Giles: Chu Pa-chieh; Sino-Vietnamese: Trư Bát Giới; Japanese: Cho Hakkai; Thai: Teu Poi Gai), also named Zhu Wuneng (Han-Vietnamese: Trư Ngộ Năng; Japanese: Cho Gonō; traditional Chinese: 豬悟能; simplified Chinese: 猪悟能; pinyin: Zhū Wùnéng; Wade-Giles: Chu Wu-neng), is one of the three helpers of Xuanzang in the classic Chinese novel Journey to the West. He is called "Pigsy" or "Pig" in many English versions of the story.

Zhu Bajie is a complex and developed character in the novel. He looks like a terrible monster, part human and part pig, who often gets himself and his companions into trouble by his laziness, his gluttony, and his propensity for lusting after pretty women. He is jealous of Wukong and always tries to bring him down. His Buddhist name "Zhu Wuneng", given by bodhisattva Guanyin, means "pig (reincarnate) who is aware of ability, or pig who rises to power", a reference to the fact that he values himself so much as to forget his own grisly appearance. Xuanzang gave him the nickname Bājiè which means "eight restraints, or eight commandments" to remind him of his Buddhist diet. He is often seen as the most outgoing of the group. In the original Chinese novel, he is often called dāizi (獃子), meaning "idiot". Sun Wukong, Xuanzang and even the author refer to him as "idiot" over the course of the story. Bodhisattvas and other heavenly beings usually refer to him as "Heavenly Tumbleweed."


Zhu Bajie's name is composed of three characters: Zhū (豬) which means "pig", and Bājiè, (八戒) which means "Eight Prohibitions". His name was formerly Zhū Lìujiè (豬六戒), lìu (六) meaning "six". When he committed two more sins, however, his name was changed to Bājiè.


Zhu Bajie originally held the title of Tiānpéng Yuánshuǎi (天蓬元帅; lit. "Marshall of the Heavenly Canopy, or the Marshall of the Heavenly Tumbleweed"), commander-in-chief of 7,000 Heavenly Navy Soldiers. When Sun Wu Kong was born, he was a giant demon. Tiānpéng Yuánshuǎi defeated him and he was granted his present title. He was later banished, however, for misbehaviour. At a party organized for all the significant figures in Heaven, Bajie saw the Goddess of the Moon for the first time and was captivated by her beauty. Following a drunken attempt to get close to her, she reported this to the Jade Emperor and thus he was banished to Earth. In some retellings of the story, his banishment is linked to Sun Wukong's downfall. In any case, he was exiled from Heaven and sent to be reincarnated on Earth, where by mishap he fell into a pig farm and was reborn as a man-eating pig-monster known as Zhū Gāngliè ( the "steel-maned pig").

In the earlier portions of Journey to the West, Wukong and Xuanzang come to Gao village and find that a daughter of the village elder had been kidnapped and the abductor left a note demanding marriage. After some investigations, Wukong found out that Bajie was the "villain" behind this. He fought with Wukong, but ended the fight when he learned that Wukong is a servant of Xuanzang, revealing that he had been recruited by Guanyin to join their pilgrimage and make atonements for his sins (those that had got him thrown out of Heaven, and the many he had racked up since).

Like his fellow disciples, Bajie has supernatural powers. He knows 36 transformations. Like his fellow disciple, Sha Wujing, his combat skills underwater are superior to that of Wukong. The novel makes use of constant alchemical imagery and Bajie is most closely linked to the Wood element, as seen by another one of his nicknames, Mùmǔ (木母, "Wood-Mother").

At the end of the novel, most of Bajie's fellow pilgrims achieve enlightenment and become buddhas or arhats, but he does not; although much improved, he is still too much a creature of his base desires. He is instead rewarded for his part in the pilgrimage's success with a job as "Cleanser of the Altars" and all the leftovers he can eat.

As a weapon, he wields a jiǔchǐ-dīngpá, a nine-tooth (jiǔchǐ) iron muck-rake (dīngpá) from Heaven that weighs roughly 5,048 kilos (or roughly 11,129 pounds).

Popular culture

In the manga Dragon Ball/Dragon Ball Z and the anime Dragon Ball, Dragon Ball Z and Dragon Ball GT, there is a pig named Oolong which is loosely based on Zhu Bajie; he is greedy, ugly, stupid and has the shape-changing ability.

Saiyuki, an anime and manga loosely based on Journey to the West, features a major character named Cho Hakkai is loosely based on Zhu Bajie; indeed, Cho Hakkai is Japanese for Zhu Bajie, as is his previous name Cho Gonou (Zhu Wuneng). Hakkai, being gentle (at least superficially) and polite, and hardly resembling anything but a human, is nothing like Bajie. However, in a team of impostors who take the party's place in a few episodes, Hakkai's counterpart is in fact a slobbish glutton.

In the anime InuYasha, Zhu Bajie's descendant is a demon named Chokyukai (Cho Kyukai "Pig with Nine Prohibitions"; if in Chinese Zhū Jiǔjiè) that abducts young unmarried women and takes them to his palace.

The Capcom arcade game SonSon, also loosely based on Journey to the West, features a character drawn from Zhu Bajie in the form of the second-player character Tonton.




Chinese mythology, Fictional monks, Legendary mammals, Journey to the West, Characters in written fiction

Zhuanxu (顓頊)


Alternative Names (異名):
顓頊, 颛顼, Zhuanxu

Zhuanxu (traditional Chinese: 顓頊; simplified Chinese: 颛顼; pinyin: Zhuānxū), also known as Gaoyang (高陽) is a legendary monarch of ancient China.

A grandson of the Yellow Emperor, Zhuanxu led the Shi clan in an eastward migration to present-day Shandong, where intermarriages with the Dongyi clan enlarged and augmented their tribal influences. At age twenty, he became their sovereign, going on to rule for seventy-eight years until his death.

He made contributions to a unified calendar, astrology, religion reforms to oppose shamanism, upheld the patriarchal (as opposed to the previous matriarchal) system, and forbade close-kin marriage. Zhuanxu is held by many to be one of the Five Emperors.




Chinese history stubs, Chinese mythology

朱熹 (Zhu Xi, 1130-1200)

Zhu Xi (1130-1200)

Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (Chinese: 朱熹, October 18, 1130, Youxi, Fujian Province, China – April 23, 1200, China) was a Song Dynasty Confucian scholar who became the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. His contribution to Chinese philosophy include his assigning special significance to the Analects of Confucius, the Mencius, the Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean (the Four Books), his emphasis on the investigation of things (gewu), and the synthesis of all fundamental Confucian concepts formed the basis of Chinese bureaucracy and government for over 700 years.

Quotes·Quotations by Zhu Xi


¶ 少年易老学难成,一寸光阴不可轻。
The young become old soon. It takes a lot of time to learn something. We must not waste any time.


Zhong Kui (鍾馗)

Zhong Kui(鍾馗)

Alternative Names (異名):
鍾馗, Zhong Kui, Shōki(Japanese)

Zhong Kui (Chinese: 鍾馗; pinyin: Zhōng Kuí; Japanese: Shōki) is a figure of Chinese mythology. Traditionally regarded as a vanquisher of ghosts and evil beings, and reputedly able to command 80,000 demons, his image is often painted on household gates as a guardian spirit, as well as in places of business where high-value goods are involved.

According to folklore, Zhong Kui travelled with Du Ping (杜平), a friend from his hometown, to take part in the imperial examinations at the capital. Though Zhong achieved top honours in the exams, his title of "zhuangyuan" was stripped by the emperor because of his disfigured appearance. In anger, Zhong Kui committed suicide upon the palace steps by hurling himself against the palace gate until his head was broken. Du Ping buried him. After Zhong became king of ghosts in Hell, he returned to his hometown on the Chinese New Year's Eve. To repay Du Ping's kindness, Zhong Kui gave his younger sister in marriage to Du.

Zhong Kui's popularity in folklore can be traced to the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang China (712 to 756). According to Song Dynasty sources, once the Emperor Xuanzong was gravely ill. He had a dream in which he saw two ghosts. The smaller of the ghosts stole a purse from imperial consort Yang Guifei and a flute belonging to the emperor. The bigger ghost, wearing the hat of an official, captured the smaller ghost, tore out his eye and ate it. The bigger ghost then introduced himself as Zhong Kui. He said that he had sworn to rid the empire of evil. When the emperor awoke, he had recovered from his illness. So he commissioned the court painter Wu Daozi (吴道子) to produce an image of Zhong Kui to show to the officials. This was highly influential to later representations of Zhong.

See also

Feng shui




Chinese mythology stubs, Chinese mythology

ZHOU Dunyi (周敦頤, 1017–1073)

ZHOU Dunyi (周敦頤, 1017–1073)

Zhou Dunyi (1017–1073) (traditional Chinese: 周敦頤; simplified Chinese: 周敦颐; pinyin: Zhōu Dūnyí; Wade–Giles: Chou Tun-i), born Zhou Dunshi (周敦實), courtesy name Maoshu (茂叔), was a Chinese Neo-Confucian philosopher and cosmologist born in present-day Yongzhou during the Song Dynasty. He conceptualized the Neo-Confucian cosmology of the day, explaining the relationship between human conduct and universal forces. In this way, he emphasizes that humans can master their qi ("vital life energy") in order to accord with nature. He was a major influence to Zhu Xi, who was the architect of Neo-Confucianism. Zhou Dunyi was mainly concerned with Taiji (supreme polarity) and Wuji (limitless potential), the yin and yang, and the wu xing (the five phases). He is also venerated and credited in Taoism as the first philosopher to popularize the concept of the taijitu, or "yin-yang symbol".

人物: 周敦頤 (ZHOU Dunyi, 1017–1073)

Zhang Guifang (张桂芳)

Zhang Guifang(张桂芳)

Alternative Names (異名):
张桂芳, Zhang Guifang

Zhang Guifang (Chinese: 张桂芳; Pinyin: Zhāng Guìfāng) is a fictional character featured within the famed ancient Chinese novel Investiture of the Gods.


Zhang Guifang is the commander of Green Dragon Pass and serves under Grand Old Master Wen Zhong like an iron sword. In appearance, Zhang wears bulky white royal armor and wields a large ice spear. Due to Zhang's original status, he wields the magical ability "name call"; with this ability, Zhang could paralyze any individual if he happens to say their true name (such an ability is impossible to use on Superiormen however).

Following the trickery of Chao Lei, Wen Zhong would send Zhang and his vanguard Feng Lin to the Western Foothills on a punitive campaign. Following Zhang's arrival, he would try to convince Jiang Ziya to "see the light" and return to King Zhou. Shortly following this, a major battle would ensue between Zhang and his army. While personally dueling against Huang Feihu, he would shout the words, "Huang Feihu, get down from your beast!" Thus, Zhang captured Huang and returned to camp.

Later on, Nezha would confront Zhang around two days following the previous conflict with Jiang Ziya. Nezha would use his divine renown to easily smash through Zhang's unit of a thousand troops and even destroy Zhang's right arm with a crucial attack. However, Wang Magus would later heal Zhang's wounds, effectively allowing him to return again in battle. Following the desperate actions of Li Resounding, Zhang would immediately appear and rescue him from trouble. However, Zhang himself would be forced to flee. At the time of night, Jiang Ziya would send the Chao Twins and Heavenly Happiness before Zhang's camp. After declaring his eternal allegiance to King Zhou, Zhang would commit suicide by impaling himself with his sword.

Zhang Guifang was appointed as the deity of Sangmenxing (丧门星) in the end.



Fengshen Yanyi characters | Taoism | Chinese gods | Chinese mythology